ZHAN Wang
Forms in Flux No.17

 

2017
Fluid Dynamics, 3D print, Hammered Stainless Steel, Blowtorch-Flame Surface
173 x 70 x 67 cm丨ed.1/4

  • 作品編號: H-18688118-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-2-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-2-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-2-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-2-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-2-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-2-1-1-1-2-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-4-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-2-1-1-1
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ZHAN Wang was born in 1962 in Beijing where he continues to work until today. His creation has always found their roots in the Chinese scholar tradition, myths, religion and the profane life, yet out of this soil grew out works that depicts the total transformation of Chinese society, economics and culture since the 1990’s. It is the narrative and mythical nature that makes his work so immediate and intimate in relation to the spectator.

ZHAN became known for his stainless-steel scholar’s rocks in the 1990’s. His artificial rock is the first Chinese contemporary sculpture to be collected by the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. He has realized his intention of internationalized and contemporized this ancient unique Chinese culture of rock appreciation.

ZHAN has minted a new visual language that mythologizes China’s 21st-century metamorphosis into a modern, gleaming stainless-steel society while holding on to its traditions. While he is said to be a conceptualist sculptor, he believes that concept cannot be formed without artistry; this idea reflects the pursuit for moderation (Zhongyong) in Chinese philosophy.

The process of creation, from discovery of the rocks to their meticulous replication, reflects ancient philosopher Laozi’s notion that man cannot transcend nature. Working within nature’s confines is what distinguishes ZHAN’s work from western sculptors who seek to transform nature to express them.

ZHAN’s work combines Taoist notions of illusion, reality, and nature with an existentialist embrace of the absurd. Much of his work can only be seen in photographs or videos because part of his concept is that some of the sculptures be permanently exhibited in unreachable destinations. Even though he started off as a sculptor, he continues to expand the form and aesthetic significance in his work for the past twenty years.

  • 1962 Born in Beijing, Chin
  • 1978–1981 Beijing Industrial Arts College, Beijing, China
  • 1983–1988 Sculpture Department, Central Academy of Fine Arts, Beijing, China
  • 1995-1996 Beijing Industrial Arts College, Beijing, China
  • Currently lives and works in Beijing

SOLO EXHIBITIONS

    2015

  • “Nothing for the Time Being”, OCT Contemporary Art Terminal, Shanghai, China
    2014

  • "Zhan Wang, SUYUAN STONE GENERATOR - 1 HOUR EQUALS 100 MILLION YEARS", PROJECT ONE, Hong Kong, China
  • “Morph”, Long March Space, Beijing, China
    2012

  • “Form of Formless”, Long March Space, Beijing, China
  • “Universe”, Singapore Tyler Print Institute, Singapore
    2011

  • “My Personal Universe”, Ullens Center for Contemporary Art, Beijing, China
    2010

  • “Reflection”, ESLITE GALLERY, Taipei, Taiwan
  • “Suyuan Stone Generator –1 Hour Equals 100 Million Years”, Today Art Museum, Beijing, China
    2008

  • “86 Divinity Figures”, Long March Space, Beijing, China
  • “Zhan Wang Garden Utopia”, National Art Museum of China, Beijing, China
  • “On Gold Mountain: Sculptures from the Sierra”, Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, San Francisco, USA
  • “Zhan Wang”, Haines Gallery, San Francisco, USA
    2006

  • “Zhan Wang Urban Landscape – Beijing”, Williams College Museum of Art, Williamstown, USA
    2005

  • “Flowers in the Mirror”, Han Art Gallery, Hong Kong, China
    2004

  • “Mount Everest Project to the Summit”, 8,848m Mt. Everest, Tibet, China
    2003

  • “The Now Sky Plan Collection and Display” , Xichang Satellite Launch Center, Xichang, China
    2002

  • “From Sweden to Taipei”, Taipei/Taichung, Taiwan
  • “Sham Nature – Zhan Wang’s Artificial ‘Jia Shan Shi’”, Han Art Gallery, Hong Kong, China
    2001

  • “In & Out Floating Rock on Sweden”, Gothenburg, Sweden
  • “Inlay Great Wall”, Remnant Great wall of Badaling, Beijing, China
    2000

  • “Beyond Twelve Nautical Miles – Floating Rock Drifts on the Open Sea”, Lingshan Island, Jiaonan City, Shandong, China
    1994

  • “Vacant Empty – Seduction Series’ Works of Zhan Wang”, CAFA Gallery, Beijing, China

SELECTED GROUP EXHIBITIONS

    2015

  • “CHINA 8 – Contemporary Art from China on the Rhine and Ruhr”, Foundation for Art and Culture Bonn, Germany
  • “The Wondrous All: Leading Edge of Eastern Thought”, Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Taipei, Taiwan
    2014

  • “Bloom: ESLITE GALLERY 25th Anniversary”, ESLITE GALLERY, Taipei, Taiwan
    2013

  • “Passage to History:20 Years of la Biennale di Venezia and Chinese Contemporary Art Biennale Arte 2013”, Venice, Italy
  • “Those Leading Contemporary Art Practices A Juried Invitational Exhibition of AAC (the Award of Art China), Today Art Museum, Beijing, China
    2012

  • “Chinese public Art in Cassell”, Cassell, Germany
    2011

  • “Songzhuang Art Festival: If – Chinese Contemporary Sculpture Scenery”, Songzhuang, Beijing, China
  • “3rd Art Changsha”, Hunan Provincial Museum, Changsha , China
  • “Shanshui – Chinese Landscape in Chinese Contemporary Art”, Museum of Art in Lucerne, Lucerne, Switzerland
  • “The Exhibition of Art Museum Architecture Design & Research”, Yuan Art Museum, Beijing, China
  • “Collecting History – China New Art”, Chengdu MOCA, Chengdu, China
  • “Louis Vuitton – Voyages”, National Museum of China, Beijing, China
  • “Chengdu Biennale 2011”, Chengdu East Music Park, Chengdu, China
  • “Future Pass, From Asia to the World – 54th Venice Biennale”, Venice, Italy
  • "Unable Absence – Winshare Contemporary Art Display", Winshare Museum, Chengdu, China
  • “Black White”, Zero Art Museum, Beijing, China
  • “The Emperor's Private Paradise: Treasures From The Forbidden City”, Milwaukee Art Museum, Milwaukee, USA
  • “Urban Arcadia: Zhan Wang/MVRDV”, MOT/ARTS, Taipei, Taiwan
  • "Artron Annual Sculpture Prize for Artist", Forbidden Palace, Beijing, China
    2010

  • “Zaoxing: Artwork from the Faculty of the Central Academy of Fine Arts”, CAFA Art Museum, Beijing, China
  • “Great Performances”, Pace Beijing, Beijing, China
  • "Crossing Horizons: Contemporary Art From China", National Gallery Chile, Santiago, Chile
  • “Western China International Art Biennale”, Yinchuan City Art & Culture Center, Yinchuan, China
  • “Reshaping History: China Art 2000 – 2009”, National Convention Center, Today Art Museum/Arario Gallery, Beijing, China
  • “Art for the World: the Sculpture Project of the EXPO Boulevaro World”, Shanghai 2010, Shanghai EXPO, Shanghai, China
    2009

  • “Collision”, Experimental Cases of Contemporary Chinese Art, CAFA Art Museum, Beijing, China
  • “Sculpture in Nature, Nature of Sculpture”, Foundation de 11 Lijnen, Oudenburg, Belgium
  • “Beijing – Havana: New Contemporary Chinese Art Revolution”, National Museum of Fine Arts of Cuba, Havana, Cuba
  • “Europalia International Art Festival: Chinese Gardens for Living”, Brussels, Belgium
  • “Annual Exhibition of Contemporary Art Collection”, Songzhuang, Beijing, China
  • “Vancouver Biennale”, Vancouver, Canada
  • “China Arts and Crafts Exhibition – Celebrating the 60th Anniversary of the New China Establishment, National Art Museum of China, Beijing, China
  • “Embrace Suzhou – Exhibition of Chinese Contemporary Art”, Suzhou Museum, Suzhou, China
  • “Yi Pai – Century Think”, Today Art Museum, Beijing, China
  • “A Conversation with Chicago: Contemporary Sculpture from China”, Chicago, USA
  • “Biennial Cuvée”, OK Centre of Contemporary Art, Linz, Austria
  • “Bo’ao Asian Contemporary Art Exhibition”, Bo’ao Asian Forum International meeting Center, Qionghai, China
  • “Contemporary Sculpture in the Historic”, Bad Homburg Kurpark and Castle Gardens, Bad Homburg, Germany
    2008

  • “Chinese Exhibitions and Events in London”, British Museum, London, UK
  • “The Revolution Continues – New Chinese Art”, Saatchi Gallery, London, UK
  • “Chinese Gardens for Living: Illusion into Reality”, Dresden State Art Collections, Dresden, Germany
  • “Metropolis Now – A Selection of Chinese Contemporary Art”, Meridian International Center, Washington DC, USA
  • “Accumulations: Spirit of the East”, Asian Art Center, Beijing, China
  • “798 Art Festival”, Factory 798, Beijing, China
  • “Singapore Biennale 2008: Wonder”, Singapore
  • “Hanging in the Sky, Drifting on the Surface”, Linda Gallery, Beijing, China
  • “Hypallage – The Postmodern Mode of Chinese Contemporary Art”, OCT Art and Design Gallery, Shenzhen, China
  • “New World Order: Contemporary Installation Art and Photography from China”, Groningen Museum, Groningen, Netherlands
  • “Case Studies of Artists in Art History”, SZ Art Center, Beijing, China
  • “The Origin: The First Annual Moon River Sculpture Festival”, Moon River Museum of Contemporary Art, Beijing, China
  • “Beijing – Malmo, Chinese Contemporary Sculpture Exhibition”, Overseas Chinese Town, Beijing, China
  • “Beijing – Athens, Contemporary Art from China”, Athens National Contemporary Art Center, Athens, Greece
    2007

  • “Reincarnation”, Doris McCarthy Gallery, University of Toronto Scarborough, Canada
  • “Recapture History – Contemporary Chinese Art From the Collection”, Guangdong Museum of Fine Arts, Guangzhou, China
  • “Net: Re-Imagining Space, Time and Culture”, Chambers Fine Arts, Beijing, China
  • “Art Now Shanghai”, Inaugural Exhibition of Beijing Art Now Gallery in Shanghai, Art Now Gallery, Shanghai, China
  • “Rejected Collection”, Ke Center for Contemporary Art, Shanghai, China
  • “The Power of the Universe: The Frontier of Contemporary Chinese Art”, Asia Art Center, Beijing, China
  • “The Contemporary Road of Media and Tradition – Group Exhibition of Ten Leading Contemporary Sculptors”, Asia Art Center, Beijing, China
  • “Transparent Frame – Contemporary Art in Tibet”, Tibet, China
  • “The First Today’s Documents – Energy: Spirit·Body·Material”, Today Art Museum, Beijing, China
  • “Contemporary Cultural: Venation China – Contemporary Art Exhibition”, Today Art Museum, Beijing, China
  • “Escape By Crafty Scheme – Salvation From Traditional and Revolution Language”, Nanjing Square Gallery Of Contemporary Art, Nanjing, China
  • “China Under Construction – Contemporary Art from the People’s Republic”, Houston, USA
  • “China Onward: The Estella Collection – Chinese Contemporary Art”, Louisiana Museum of Modern Art, Copenhagen, Denmark
  • “Energies-Synergy”, Foundation de 11 Lijinen, Oudenburg, Belgium
    2006

  • “New Occidentalism – Chinese Contemporary Art in Beijing”, Hongxuan Plaza, Beijing, China
  • “Art in Motion”, Museum of Contemporary Art, Shanghai, China
  • “Hyper Design: The 6th Shanghai Biennale”, Shanghai Museum of Art, Shanghai, China
  • “Entry Gate – Chinese Aesthetics of Heterogeneity”, Museum of Contemporary Art, Shanghai, China
  • “In the Name of Material: Nominated Works by HSS Art Centre”, HSS Art Center, Shanghai, China
  • “City in Progress”, Zhangjiang Industrial Development Area, Shanghai, China
  • “Triennial for Contemporary Art by the Sea”, PMMK, Museum of Modern Art, Ostend, Belgium
  • “Mahjong: Contemporary Chinese Art from the Sigg Collection”, Museum of Fine Arts Bern, Bern, Switzerland
  • “Unclear & Clearance – Chinese Contemporary Art Festival”, Heyri Foundation Gallery, Seoul, Korea
  • “Martell Extraordinary Artists of the Year 2006”, National Art Museum of China, Beijing, China
  • “Chinese Contemporary Art Almanac”, World Art Museum, Beijing, China
  • “Shu: Re-inventing Books in Contemporary Chinese Art”, China Institute, New York, USA
  • “Indigenous Mode: Contemporary Renaissance in Aesthetic Reconstruction”, Today Art Museum, Beijing, China
  • “Songzhuang Art Festival”, Songzhuang, Beijing, China
  • “Size Decides Attitude – First 5×7 Picture-Taking Biennale Project”, TS1 Art Museum, Beijing; Pingyao, Shanxi, China
  • “Open Path: Second Public Sculpture Exhibition of the Songzhuang Art Festival”, Beijing, China
  • “The New Chinese Landscape”, Arthur M. Sackler Museum, Washington/Harvard University Art Museums, Boston, MA, USA
    2005

  • “Electrical Scape: International New Media Art Exhibition”, Zendai Museum, Shanghai, China
  • “Chinese Avant-garde Sculpture”, Museum Sculptures by the Sea, Hague, Netherlands
  • “Universal Experience – Art, Life and the Tourist’s Eye”, Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, IL, USA; Haywood Gallery, London, UK
  • “The Elegance of Silence”, Mori Art Museum, Tokyo, Japan
  • “The Wall: Reshaping Contemporary Chinese Art”, World Art Museum, Beijing, China; UB Art Gallery and Albright Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, USA
  • “Hand Upward Are the Clouds, Hand Downward Comes the Rain”, TS1 Contemporary Art Center, Beijing, China
  • “First Annual Exhibition of Chinese Contemporary Art”, World Art Museum, Beijing, China
  • “The Festival of China”, The Kennedy Center, Washington DC, USA
  • “Transparent Box”, SOHO Modern City, Beijing, China
  • “Exchange Value of Pleasure”, Busan Museum of Modern Art, Busan, Korea
  • “Beijing and Beijing”, Houhai, Beijing, China
    2004

  • “Beyond Boundaries”, Shanghai Gallery of Art, Shanghai, China
  • “Sightseeing from Beijing: Exchange Exhibition with Central Academy of Fine Arts”, Sydney College of Arts and University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
  • “Chinese Imagination”, Tuileries Garden, Paris, France
  • “Between Past and Future: New Photography and Video from China”, International Center of Photography, New York, USA
  • “Playing With Energy”, House of Shiseido, Tokyo, Japan
  • “Chinese Contemporary Art Touring Exhibition”, Museum of Contemporary Art, Rome, Italy; Ludwig Museum, Budapest, Hungary
  • “Les Années Chine-France Sand Dune Sculpture Exhibition”, Nice, France
  • “20th Year Anniversary of HanArt Gallery”, HanArt Gallery, Hong Kong, China
  • “First Document Nomination Exhibition”, Wuhan, Sichuan, China
    2003

  • “Blue Sky Unguarded”, Yizhuang, Beijing, China
  • “Dreams and Conflicts – The Dictatorship of the Viewer, Synthi-Scapes: Chinese Pavilion, 50th Venice Biennale”, Venice, Italy; Guangdong Museum of Art, Guangzhou, China
  • “Open Times”, National Art Museum of China, Beijing, China
  • “First Beijing International Art Biennale”, National Art Museum of China, Beijing, China
  • “Left Hand, Right Hand – A Sino-German Exhibition of Contemporary Art”, Beijing 798 Space Art & Culture, Beijing, China
  • "New Generation and Post Revolution”, Yan Huang Art Museum, Beijing, China
  • “Conceptual Real Estate Exhibition”, New Technology Center, Guangzhou, China
    2002

  • “The Long March – A Walking Visual Display”, Ruijin, Jiangxi/ Xichang Satellite Launch Center, Xichang, China
  • “Chinese Contemporary Art Touring Exhibition”, Museum Küppersmühle, Duisburg, Germany
  • “China Contemporary Art”, Brasilia Art Museum, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  • “Golden Harvest – Chinese Contemporary Art Exhibition”, Croatia National Art Museum, Zagreb, Croatia
  • “Harvest – Contemporary Art Exhibition of China”, Agricultural Exhibition Center, Beijing, China
  • “Paris – Peking”, Pierre Cardin Center, Paris, France
  • “The First Guangzhou Triennial: Reinterpretation – A Decade of Experimental Chinese Art (1990 – 2000)”, Guangdong Art Museum, Guangzhou, China
  • “Overwhelming Fun”, HaKaren Art Gallery, Singapore
    2001

  • “Hot Pot: Chinese Contemporary Art”, Kunstnemes Hus, Oslo, Norway
  • “New Starting Point”, Art Gas Station, Beijing, China
  • “Cross Crossing”, Modern Art Gallery, Chengdu, China
  • “Dream: Contemporary Art of China”, Atlantic Fine Art, London, UK
  • “Art and Science”, National Art Museum of China, Beijing, China
  • “Making China”, Ethan Cohen Fine Arts, New York, USA
  • “Poster Exhibition of Chinese Avant-garde”, Red Gate Gallery, Beijing, China
  • “Knowledge is Power”, Beijing Book Building, Beijing, China
  • “Celebration of Life”, Oriental Plaza, Beijing, China
  • “Rocks and Art: Nature Found and Made”, Chambers Fine Art, New York, USA
    2000

  • “Invitational Exhibition of Contemporary Sculpture from China”, Qingdao Sculpture Museum, Qingdao, China
  • “Oriental Plaza Selected Contemporary Sculpture from China”, Oriental Plaza, Beijing, China
  • “Open 2000: International Exhibition of Sculpture and Installation”, Venice, Italy
  • “Sui Jianguo and Zhan Wang: Two Man Sculpture Exhibition”, Loft Gallery, Paris, France
  • “Humanist Landscape”, Guilin, Guangxi, China
  • “Documentation of Chinese Avant-garde Art in the 1990’s”, Fukuoka Asian Art Museum, Fukuoka, Japan
  • “2000 West Lake International Sculpture Invitational Exhibition”, Taiziwan Park, Hangzhou, China
  • “The World of Real and Illusory”, Yun Feng Gallery, Beijing, China
  • “Spirit of Shanghai: The 3rd Shanghai Biennale”, Shanghai Art Museum, Shanghai, China
  • “With Complements”, Cotthem Gallery, Brussel, Belgium
    1999

  • “Cities on the Move”, Louisiana Museum of Modern Art, Copenhagen, Denmark; Hayward Gallery, London, UK; Museum of Contemporary Art, Helsinki, Finland
  • “Transience – Chinese Experimental Art at the End of the Twentieth Century”, The Smart Museum of Art, Chicago, USA
  • “Contemporary Art from China”, LIMN Gallery, San Francisco, USA
  • “Volume and Form: Singapore International Sculpture Exhibition”, Singapore
  • “Changchun Invitational Sculpture Exhibition”, Changchun, China
  • “Second Annual Exhibition of Contemporary Sculpture”, He Xiangning Museum, Shenzhen, China
  • “At the New Century 1979 – 1999”, Chengdu Museum of Contemporary Art, Chengdu, China
    1998

  • “Signs of Life: Group Exhibition of Modern Chinese Art”, Modern Art Studio, Beijing, China
  • “Cities on the Move”, Museum of Contemporary Art, Bordeaux, France; P.S.1 Contemporary Art Center, New York, USA
  • “Autonomous Action – New Chinese Art on Video”, Art Space, Auckland, New Zealand
  • “Commemorating Life”, Jin Bao Shan, New Taipei City, Taiwan
  • “Half a Century of Footprints, Central Academy of Fine Arts, Sculpture Institute”, CAFA Museum, Beijing, China
  • “A Revelation of 20 Years of Contemporary Chinese Art”, Workers’ Cultural Palace, Beijing, China
  • “Building Blocks”, The Courtyard Gallery, Beijing, China
  • “Rethinking Tradition – An Exhibition of Contemporary Chinese Art”, German Embassy, Beijing, China
  • “First Annual Exhibition of Contemporary Sculpture”, He Xiangning Museum, Shenzhen, China
  • “Platform for the Two Sexes”, TEDA Contemporary Art Museum, Tianjin, China
    1997

  • “Chinese Contemporary Art Exhibition”, Watari-um Museum, Tokyo, Japan
  • “Eternal Memory – Nanshan Sculpture Exhibition”, Nanshan Sculpture Institute, Shenzhen, China
  • “Cities on the Move – Asian Contemporary Art (Touring Exhibition 1997 –1999)”, Vienna, Austria
  • “Chinese Dream – 97 Contemporary Chinese Art”, Yan Huang Art Museum, Beijing, China
  • “The First Sculpture Activities in Guilin Daguyang Art Palace”, Guilin, China
  • “Continuation”, Central Academy of Fine Art, Beijing, China
    1996

  • “TEDA International Sculpture Competition”, Tianjin, China
  • “The First Exhibition in Mountain-Forest Sculpture Park”, Huairou, Beijing, China
  • “International Outdoor Exhibition of Contemporary Sculpture”, Fukuoka, Japan
  • “The First Academic Exhibition of Chinese Contemporary Artists”, Hong Kong Art Center, Hong Kong, China
  • “Sculpture and Contemporary Culture – The Research Report on Chinese Contemporary Art”, Chongqing, China
  • “Invited Works of Chinese Contemporary Sculpture”, Nanshan Sculpture Institute, Shenzhen, China
  • “Reality: Present and Future ’96: Chinese Contemporary Art”, International Crowne Plaza, Beijing, China
    1995

  • “45 Degrees as a Reason”, Art Exchange, Hangzhou/Shanghai/Beijing, China
  • “Development Plan, Triplicate Studio 1st Exhibition”, remains of the original Central Academy of Fine Arts, Beijing, China
  • “Women·Site, Triplicate Studio 2nd Exhibition”, Contemporary Art Gallery, Beijing, China
  • “Open Your Mouth, Close Your Eyes: Beijing – Berlin Art Exchange”, Art Museum of the Capital Normal University, Beijing, China
  • “Exhibition of Works Nominated by Critics (1995 sculpture and installation)”, Jiangsu Art Monthly, Nanjing, China
    1994

  • “Cleaning Ruins Project”, Wang Fujing, Beijing, China
  • “Second National Urban Sculpture Exhibition”, National Art Museum of China, Beijing, China
  • “Agree to 11/26 as a Reason, Art Exchange”, Hangzhou/Shanghai/Beijing, China
    1993

  • “Taiwan – Beijing Two Sides of the Strait, Sculpture Exchange”, Kaohsiung Art Gallery, Taiwan; Yan Huang Art Museum, Beijing, China
    1992

  • “20th Century China”, National Art Museum of China, Beijing, China
  • “Contemporary Youth Sculptor Invitation Exhibition”, Gallery of Zhejiang Academy of Fine Arts, Zhejiang, China
    1991

  • “New Generation Art Exhibition”, Chinese History Museum, Beijing, China
    1990

  • “The First Studio Art Exhibition”, CAFA Gallery, Beijing, China
    1987

  • “Art Academy Student Work Exhibition”, Museum of the Central Academy of Fine Arts, Beijing, China
    1986

  • “Beijing Youth Art Exhibition”, National Art Museum of China, Beijing, China

Awards

    2011

  • AAC Art China.Annual Influence
  • Harper’s Bazaar Men’s Style
    2006

  • Martell Extraordinary Artist Award
    2000

  • 100 Global Most Discussed Artists, Art Handbook, Japan
Click on each year's works

如何翻製傳統? ──閱讀展望的創作

文/游崴

1994年,展望創作了「誘惑──中山裝系列」,標幟著他試圖用觀念來拆解雕塑傳統,並探討社會文化因子的企圖心。「中山裝」在服飾細節上具有不少政治理想的隱喻,常予人莊重威嚴的印象。但展望的「中山裝」所暗示的,卻是一個個激烈蜷曲的身體。

這組雕塑的材料是現成物,用真的中山裝固化製作而成,乍看如人著衣,裡頭暗示著身軀,但實際上,它們只是一層薄薄的軀殼,身體已經缺席了。在展望眼中,內裡空蕩蕩的中山裝,一如蟬蛻之後遺留下的殼:

蟬在最後離開這個舊的軀殼的時候,一定是很壯烈的,這從蛻變後留下的軀殼的動作上可以看出來。而當你把蟬蛻拿在手上的時候,卻又是一種舉重若輕的感覺。[1]

舉重若輕,曾經的壯烈被抽離掉只剩一副如蟬蛻後的殼,展望以「中山裝」為喻,指陳的其實是中國社會在1990年代後集體精神狀態的鉅變──即在政治威權之外,商品化與日常性在底層社會開始顯現,並衝擊了原先單一化的社會體制。

傳統雕塑以體感、量感來體現存有,展望的「中山裝」則是相反地表達虛空,展示著主體消散後,孤伶伶的一副皮相。這種關於表皮的美學,緊接著在他之後的「假山石」系列中繼續獲得發展。

展望自1994年起開始用不銹鋼創作「假山石」系列。假山石是一種在長年水波侵蝕下而外形奇兀聳峭的石灰岩,因石形特殊宛若山形,因此自古便是中國園林裡常見的裝飾物。展望將這些帶著文人傳統基因的石塊,翻製成熠熠發光的雕塑物件,它們是天然假山石的摹本,看來如同工業製品,實際上卻是耗時費力的手工藝。

不銹鋼現代雕塑常給人低限而幾何的印象,展望的假山石由於完全像是自然生成的有機形體而顯得不同。但有形的雕塑物件在展望的創作中,只像是個逗點,重要的是前後文──即從一開始的藝術生產,到之後作品在社會場域中收受的整個機制。展望常常在上述這種創作活動的「前場」與「後場」之間瞻前顧後進行思索,「正本」與「摹本」之間的辯證關係亦是展望常動用的語法。

文物、信物與神話

值得注意的是,從中山裝到假山石,展望所翻製的除了是現成物之外,也毫無疑問的全是傳統文化浸染甚深的「文物」。只是這些文物在經過展望的翻製後,特定的歷史文化脈絡不是被翻轉,不然就是變得可疑。展望的手法接近一種符號學式的操作,將文物的表義(denotation)與深義(connotation)彼此剝離開來創造歧義,對此,展望主要透過不銹鋼的特殊質感來創造剝離的效果。

對展望而言,用不銹鋼來詮釋傳統文物帶來「如釋重負的輕鬆感,這種感覺帶給我們的是解脫,是疏離,是一種距離感」[2]。在他的描述中,「傳統」像是一個隨身物品,或輕或重,你總是無時無刻在感受它(這無疑延續著「中山裝」系列裡有過的類似觀點──傳統如覆在每個人身上的表皮與介殼,在穿與脫之間意義因此改變)。事實上,展望的創作觀中常涉及某種身體化的描述策略,不管是傳統、文化、政治與國家,它們都不是抽象觀念,而是涉及身體感的經驗。

如果傳統上,文人眼中的奇石引領著人們凝視風化後的殘敗嶙嶇來遙想大地,展望的不銹鋼「假山石」則近乎讓時間凍結,充滿歷史消散後的冷酷味道,拋光的表面作為一種徹底的皮相,漫射四周光景卻不透露內裡奧祕。

被翻製後的假山石,漸漸與它原本指涉的自然、舊時代與文人傳統等等拉開了距離,成為一種意義飄忽不定的物體,而展望致力將它們置於各種不同的場所中,來創造新的意義,如2000年他從山東省最外海的靈山島駛出12海哩到達國際海域,將一顆不銹鋼浮石投入海中做為「在公海上展示的藝術品」;其他一些「假山石行動」則連結了著名地標,如2001年的《鑲長城計畫》用不銹鋼翻製磚頭修補長城,或是讓一組登山隊帶著他的「假山石」登上海拔8848公尺的珠穆朗馬峰,甚至,最瘋狂的想法是把假山石送入太空的《新補天計畫》。這些材質上近乎不朽的假山石反覆在不同畛域間往復,它們源自大地,卻又在人為鍛造後,被重新施放回大地之中暗示著什麼,在某種意義上變成了挾帶精神意義的信物。

有趣的是,藝術語言的象徵力量,在展望常被操作得像是神話或傳說,帶有莫名的傳奇色彩。事實上,若考慮展望的創作總是圍繞著那些意味深長的文物,我們便不訝異於他對於神話與傳說的興趣。他從不吝於以具體的藝術語言引用神話、典故、傳說與歷史故事,為其觀念行動注入敘事性。

神話的隱喻讓展望的觀念雕塑有著很貼近世俗的一面。確實,對大多數的觀者而言,用神話傳說來理解展望手中的奇山異石,似乎遠比透過「社會雕塑」這類美學觀念來得容易些。如《新補天計畫》展望直接以「女媧煉石補天」為喻,並在他之後的個展「園林烏托邦」中,將計畫中的這塊不銹鋼隕石,在玻璃櫃中施以電磁技術使其漂浮半空中,看來就像是真的具有異常能量,至於究竟它是否真的進行過一趟太空之旅?似乎已無關緊要。2007年,展望赴西藏參加一項邀請展,則將他製作的假山石讓西藏當地的依勒活佛進行開光,被開光後的山石,則曖昧地處在藝術學與神祕主義之間。終究,藝術的象徵性與神話的傳奇性,在展望的手中有時像是一體兩面。

都市地景與文人幻境

除了在自然大地中進行的各種觀念行動,展望的假山石更常回應的是城市空間,對此,北京一直是他的靈感來源。北京自從1990年代的改革開放以來,都市地景快速變化,從小生長於北京的展望對此感受很深。1994年,當時北京最繁華的王府井大街東面正在進行都更,展望以一天時間來清洗、裝修廢墟一角。這個名為《廢墟清洗計畫》的行動終究是徒勞的社會干預,但作為藝術行動,卻凸顯了北京在現代化背後,舊傳統傷逝的象徵意義。

展望早年清洗廢墟的行動,仍有很強的物傷其類式的人文喟嘆,但慢慢的,他對都市的回應變得越來越具有後現代口吻。不銹鋼材質的華麗皮相,山石已不是山石,而近乎一種物質禮讚。材質性使得展望的假山石,有時看來並不站在都市空間的對立面演繹著自然人文,而是相反地比都市文明更壯麗、更奇觀。

一座現代城市如何像是不銹鋼一樣閃亮而不朽?這個想法在展望於2003年開始的「都市山水」系列中被操作到極致,他直接用量產的不銹鋼餐具,像積木般組成觀者可以走進的城市場景。「都市山水」系列不只把物質文明推至壯觀的程度,現場煙霧繚繞亦宛若文人山水。展望確實有意把現代都市造就出的幻景主義,跟北宋山水畫「可觀、可居、可遊」的傳統結合在一起。觀者不只旁觀,還得以遊歷其間。

近幾年來,展望的不銹鋼物件,不管是假山石或是餐具建築,越來越展現出某種雙重意象,一方面將都市文明扭曲映射成壯麗奇觀,另一方面,它們自身滿盈的物質性早就自成一景觀。展望給我們的現代都市,不管多亮麗如新,全是某種形式下的文人山水:你彷彿可以身處其間,又同時抽離開來賞玩它,場景與人的關係總是雙重的。

大地之遼闊,可以萃取為一方假山石,這個想法本身就接近一種畸趣,而展望作品中,不銹鋼的材質性似乎把這種畸趣帶向更世俗社會的那一端。其耐用、穩定與量產的可能,使得做為正本的文物具備了某種進入商品經濟的潛力,傳統文化在此不只變得很輕,還可以被計算,並透過某種經濟法則來流通,一如《佛藥堂》(2006)與《萬神殿──ATM搜神機》(2007)這兩個創作計畫中,展望試圖將歷史傳統與精神世界用世俗邏輯進行重組的手法。

小結

展望早年以雕塑起家,但這20年來卻不斷擴張作品的形式與美學意義。從早期的「中山裝」系列,到之後體系龐雜的「假山石」系列(及其衍生出的觀念行動)、不銹鋼餐具城市,乃至於最近這幾年來以世俗手法重組精神世界的多媒體裝置,它們從一個藝術物件,一路向外擴張至環境、行動與媒體。

創作面貌多樣,但展望所關注的卻一直是當代中國社會過去20年來在各層面上的轉變。「中山裝」以痙攣的身體感來體現傳統政治社會的瓦解,之後的「假山石」則反映新興商品經濟與城市文化的崛起創造出的新的世俗生活情境,文人雅趣、常民信仰與歷史傳統在此之中成為新的文化符碼。展望透過他的創作,描繪著他曾經歷過、至今仍身處其間的時代轉折,並試著告訴我們,從前精神世界遺留下來的遺產,如今將透過新的世俗法則,一個個重組起來。

(本文節錄自〈鏡石/時境〉一文。原文收錄於《展望》,台北:誠品畫廊,2010)

[1] 史麗,〈展望,假山石新夢想〉,《北京青年週刊》,2006年7月6日。

[2] 引自展望對於《假山石85#》的自述。參考展望,《新素園石譜》,北京:三聯書店,2008,頁115-116

SOLO EXHIBITION

  • 2014 "Zhan Wang, SUYUAN STONE GENERATOR - 1 HOUR EQUALS 100 MILLION YEARS", PROJECT ONE, Hong Kong, China
  • 2010 “Reflection”, ESLITE GALLERY, Taipei, Taiwan

GROUP EXHIBITION

  • 2014 “Bloom: ESLITE GALLERY 25th Anniversary”, ESLITE GALLERY, Taipei, Taiwan
ZHAN Wang%sForms in Flux No.16
ZHAN Wang%sForms in Flux No.6
  • 1962 Born in Beijing, Chin
  • 1978–1981 Beijing Industrial Arts College, Beijing, China
  • 1983–1988 Sculpture Department, Central Academy of Fine Arts, Beijing, China
  • 1995-1996 Beijing Industrial Arts College, Beijing, China
  • Currently lives and works in Beijing

SOLO EXHIBITIONS

    2015

  • “Nothing for the Time Being”, OCT Contemporary Art Terminal, Shanghai, China
    2014

  • "Zhan Wang, SUYUAN STONE GENERATOR - 1 HOUR EQUALS 100 MILLION YEARS", PROJECT ONE, Hong Kong, China
  • “Morph”, Long March Space, Beijing, China
    2012

  • “Form of Formless”, Long March Space, Beijing, China
  • “Universe”, Singapore Tyler Print Institute, Singapore
    2011

  • “My Personal Universe”, Ullens Center for Contemporary Art, Beijing, China
    2010

  • “Reflection”, ESLITE GALLERY, Taipei, Taiwan
  • “Suyuan Stone Generator –1 Hour Equals 100 Million Years”, Today Art Museum, Beijing, China
    2008

  • “86 Divinity Figures”, Long March Space, Beijing, China
  • “Zhan Wang Garden Utopia”, National Art Museum of China, Beijing, China
  • “On Gold Mountain: Sculptures from the Sierra”, Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, San Francisco, USA
  • “Zhan Wang”, Haines Gallery, San Francisco, USA
    2006

  • “Zhan Wang Urban Landscape – Beijing”, Williams College Museum of Art, Williamstown, USA
    2005

  • “Flowers in the Mirror”, Han Art Gallery, Hong Kong, China
    2004

  • “Mount Everest Project to the Summit”, 8,848m Mt. Everest, Tibet, China
    2003

  • “The Now Sky Plan Collection and Display” , Xichang Satellite Launch Center, Xichang, China
    2002

  • “From Sweden to Taipei”, Taipei/Taichung, Taiwan
  • “Sham Nature – Zhan Wang’s Artificial ‘Jia Shan Shi’”, Han Art Gallery, Hong Kong, China
    2001

  • “In & Out Floating Rock on Sweden”, Gothenburg, Sweden
  • “Inlay Great Wall”, Remnant Great wall of Badaling, Beijing, China
    2000

  • “Beyond Twelve Nautical Miles – Floating Rock Drifts on the Open Sea”, Lingshan Island, Jiaonan City, Shandong, China
    1994

  • “Vacant Empty – Seduction Series’ Works of Zhan Wang”, CAFA Gallery, Beijing, China

SELECTED GROUP EXHIBITIONS

    2015

  • “CHINA 8 – Contemporary Art from China on the Rhine and Ruhr”, Foundation for Art and Culture Bonn, Germany
  • “The Wondrous All: Leading Edge of Eastern Thought”, Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Taipei, Taiwan
    2014

  • “Bloom: ESLITE GALLERY 25th Anniversary”, ESLITE GALLERY, Taipei, Taiwan
    2013

  • “Passage to History:20 Years of la Biennale di Venezia and Chinese Contemporary Art Biennale Arte 2013”, Venice, Italy
  • “Those Leading Contemporary Art Practices A Juried Invitational Exhibition of AAC (the Award of Art China), Today Art Museum, Beijing, China
    2012

  • “Chinese public Art in Cassell”, Cassell, Germany
    2011

  • “Songzhuang Art Festival: If – Chinese Contemporary Sculpture Scenery”, Songzhuang, Beijing, China
  • “3rd Art Changsha”, Hunan Provincial Museum, Changsha , China
  • “Shanshui – Chinese Landscape in Chinese Contemporary Art”, Museum of Art in Lucerne, Lucerne, Switzerland
  • “The Exhibition of Art Museum Architecture Design & Research”, Yuan Art Museum, Beijing, China
  • “Collecting History – China New Art”, Chengdu MOCA, Chengdu, China
  • “Louis Vuitton – Voyages”, National Museum of China, Beijing, China
  • “Chengdu Biennale 2011”, Chengdu East Music Park, Chengdu, China
  • “Future Pass, From Asia to the World – 54th Venice Biennale”, Venice, Italy
  • "Unable Absence – Winshare Contemporary Art Display", Winshare Museum, Chengdu, China
  • “Black White”, Zero Art Museum, Beijing, China
  • “The Emperor's Private Paradise: Treasures From The Forbidden City”, Milwaukee Art Museum, Milwaukee, USA
  • “Urban Arcadia: Zhan Wang/MVRDV”, MOT/ARTS, Taipei, Taiwan
  • "Artron Annual Sculpture Prize for Artist", Forbidden Palace, Beijing, China
    2010

  • “Zaoxing: Artwork from the Faculty of the Central Academy of Fine Arts”, CAFA Art Museum, Beijing, China
  • “Great Performances”, Pace Beijing, Beijing, China
  • "Crossing Horizons: Contemporary Art From China", National Gallery Chile, Santiago, Chile
  • “Western China International Art Biennale”, Yinchuan City Art & Culture Center, Yinchuan, China
  • “Reshaping History: China Art 2000 – 2009”, National Convention Center, Today Art Museum/Arario Gallery, Beijing, China
  • “Art for the World: the Sculpture Project of the EXPO Boulevaro World”, Shanghai 2010, Shanghai EXPO, Shanghai, China
    2009

  • “Collision”, Experimental Cases of Contemporary Chinese Art, CAFA Art Museum, Beijing, China
  • “Sculpture in Nature, Nature of Sculpture”, Foundation de 11 Lijnen, Oudenburg, Belgium
  • “Beijing – Havana: New Contemporary Chinese Art Revolution”, National Museum of Fine Arts of Cuba, Havana, Cuba
  • “Europalia International Art Festival: Chinese Gardens for Living”, Brussels, Belgium
  • “Annual Exhibition of Contemporary Art Collection”, Songzhuang, Beijing, China
  • “Vancouver Biennale”, Vancouver, Canada
  • “China Arts and Crafts Exhibition – Celebrating the 60th Anniversary of the New China Establishment, National Art Museum of China, Beijing, China
  • “Embrace Suzhou – Exhibition of Chinese Contemporary Art”, Suzhou Museum, Suzhou, China
  • “Yi Pai – Century Think”, Today Art Museum, Beijing, China
  • “A Conversation with Chicago: Contemporary Sculpture from China”, Chicago, USA
  • “Biennial Cuvée”, OK Centre of Contemporary Art, Linz, Austria
  • “Bo’ao Asian Contemporary Art Exhibition”, Bo’ao Asian Forum International meeting Center, Qionghai, China
  • “Contemporary Sculpture in the Historic”, Bad Homburg Kurpark and Castle Gardens, Bad Homburg, Germany
    2008

  • “Chinese Exhibitions and Events in London”, British Museum, London, UK
  • “The Revolution Continues – New Chinese Art”, Saatchi Gallery, London, UK
  • “Chinese Gardens for Living: Illusion into Reality”, Dresden State Art Collections, Dresden, Germany
  • “Metropolis Now – A Selection of Chinese Contemporary Art”, Meridian International Center, Washington DC, USA
  • “Accumulations: Spirit of the East”, Asian Art Center, Beijing, China
  • “798 Art Festival”, Factory 798, Beijing, China
  • “Singapore Biennale 2008: Wonder”, Singapore
  • “Hanging in the Sky, Drifting on the Surface”, Linda Gallery, Beijing, China
  • “Hypallage – The Postmodern Mode of Chinese Contemporary Art”, OCT Art and Design Gallery, Shenzhen, China
  • “New World Order: Contemporary Installation Art and Photography from China”, Groningen Museum, Groningen, Netherlands
  • “Case Studies of Artists in Art History”, SZ Art Center, Beijing, China
  • “The Origin: The First Annual Moon River Sculpture Festival”, Moon River Museum of Contemporary Art, Beijing, China
  • “Beijing – Malmo, Chinese Contemporary Sculpture Exhibition”, Overseas Chinese Town, Beijing, China
  • “Beijing – Athens, Contemporary Art from China”, Athens National Contemporary Art Center, Athens, Greece
    2007

  • “Reincarnation”, Doris McCarthy Gallery, University of Toronto Scarborough, Canada
  • “Recapture History – Contemporary Chinese Art From the Collection”, Guangdong Museum of Fine Arts, Guangzhou, China
  • “Net: Re-Imagining Space, Time and Culture”, Chambers Fine Arts, Beijing, China
  • “Art Now Shanghai”, Inaugural Exhibition of Beijing Art Now Gallery in Shanghai, Art Now Gallery, Shanghai, China
  • “Rejected Collection”, Ke Center for Contemporary Art, Shanghai, China
  • “The Power of the Universe: The Frontier of Contemporary Chinese Art”, Asia Art Center, Beijing, China
  • “The Contemporary Road of Media and Tradition – Group Exhibition of Ten Leading Contemporary Sculptors”, Asia Art Center, Beijing, China
  • “Transparent Frame – Contemporary Art in Tibet”, Tibet, China
  • “The First Today’s Documents – Energy: Spirit·Body·Material”, Today Art Museum, Beijing, China
  • “Contemporary Cultural: Venation China – Contemporary Art Exhibition”, Today Art Museum, Beijing, China
  • “Escape By Crafty Scheme – Salvation From Traditional and Revolution Language”, Nanjing Square Gallery Of Contemporary Art, Nanjing, China
  • “China Under Construction – Contemporary Art from the People’s Republic”, Houston, USA
  • “China Onward: The Estella Collection – Chinese Contemporary Art”, Louisiana Museum of Modern Art, Copenhagen, Denmark
  • “Energies-Synergy”, Foundation de 11 Lijinen, Oudenburg, Belgium
    2006

  • “New Occidentalism – Chinese Contemporary Art in Beijing”, Hongxuan Plaza, Beijing, China
  • “Art in Motion”, Museum of Contemporary Art, Shanghai, China
  • “Hyper Design: The 6th Shanghai Biennale”, Shanghai Museum of Art, Shanghai, China
  • “Entry Gate – Chinese Aesthetics of Heterogeneity”, Museum of Contemporary Art, Shanghai, China
  • “In the Name of Material: Nominated Works by HSS Art Centre”, HSS Art Center, Shanghai, China
  • “City in Progress”, Zhangjiang Industrial Development Area, Shanghai, China
  • “Triennial for Contemporary Art by the Sea”, PMMK, Museum of Modern Art, Ostend, Belgium
  • “Mahjong: Contemporary Chinese Art from the Sigg Collection”, Museum of Fine Arts Bern, Bern, Switzerland
  • “Unclear & Clearance – Chinese Contemporary Art Festival”, Heyri Foundation Gallery, Seoul, Korea
  • “Martell Extraordinary Artists of the Year 2006”, National Art Museum of China, Beijing, China
  • “Chinese Contemporary Art Almanac”, World Art Museum, Beijing, China
  • “Shu: Re-inventing Books in Contemporary Chinese Art”, China Institute, New York, USA
  • “Indigenous Mode: Contemporary Renaissance in Aesthetic Reconstruction”, Today Art Museum, Beijing, China
  • “Songzhuang Art Festival”, Songzhuang, Beijing, China
  • “Size Decides Attitude – First 5×7 Picture-Taking Biennale Project”, TS1 Art Museum, Beijing; Pingyao, Shanxi, China
  • “Open Path: Second Public Sculpture Exhibition of the Songzhuang Art Festival”, Beijing, China
  • “The New Chinese Landscape”, Arthur M. Sackler Museum, Washington/Harvard University Art Museums, Boston, MA, USA
    2005

  • “Electrical Scape: International New Media Art Exhibition”, Zendai Museum, Shanghai, China
  • “Chinese Avant-garde Sculpture”, Museum Sculptures by the Sea, Hague, Netherlands
  • “Universal Experience – Art, Life and the Tourist’s Eye”, Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, IL, USA; Haywood Gallery, London, UK
  • “The Elegance of Silence”, Mori Art Museum, Tokyo, Japan
  • “The Wall: Reshaping Contemporary Chinese Art”, World Art Museum, Beijing, China; UB Art Gallery and Albright Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, USA
  • “Hand Upward Are the Clouds, Hand Downward Comes the Rain”, TS1 Contemporary Art Center, Beijing, China
  • “First Annual Exhibition of Chinese Contemporary Art”, World Art Museum, Beijing, China
  • “The Festival of China”, The Kennedy Center, Washington DC, USA
  • “Transparent Box”, SOHO Modern City, Beijing, China
  • “Exchange Value of Pleasure”, Busan Museum of Modern Art, Busan, Korea
  • “Beijing and Beijing”, Houhai, Beijing, China
    2004

  • “Beyond Boundaries”, Shanghai Gallery of Art, Shanghai, China
  • “Sightseeing from Beijing: Exchange Exhibition with Central Academy of Fine Arts”, Sydney College of Arts and University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
  • “Chinese Imagination”, Tuileries Garden, Paris, France
  • “Between Past and Future: New Photography and Video from China”, International Center of Photography, New York, USA
  • “Playing With Energy”, House of Shiseido, Tokyo, Japan
  • “Chinese Contemporary Art Touring Exhibition”, Museum of Contemporary Art, Rome, Italy; Ludwig Museum, Budapest, Hungary
  • “Les Années Chine-France Sand Dune Sculpture Exhibition”, Nice, France
  • “20th Year Anniversary of HanArt Gallery”, HanArt Gallery, Hong Kong, China
  • “First Document Nomination Exhibition”, Wuhan, Sichuan, China
    2003

  • “Blue Sky Unguarded”, Yizhuang, Beijing, China
  • “Dreams and Conflicts – The Dictatorship of the Viewer, Synthi-Scapes: Chinese Pavilion, 50th Venice Biennale”, Venice, Italy; Guangdong Museum of Art, Guangzhou, China
  • “Open Times”, National Art Museum of China, Beijing, China
  • “First Beijing International Art Biennale”, National Art Museum of China, Beijing, China
  • “Left Hand, Right Hand – A Sino-German Exhibition of Contemporary Art”, Beijing 798 Space Art & Culture, Beijing, China
  • "New Generation and Post Revolution”, Yan Huang Art Museum, Beijing, China
  • “Conceptual Real Estate Exhibition”, New Technology Center, Guangzhou, China
    2002

  • “The Long March – A Walking Visual Display”, Ruijin, Jiangxi/ Xichang Satellite Launch Center, Xichang, China
  • “Chinese Contemporary Art Touring Exhibition”, Museum Küppersmühle, Duisburg, Germany
  • “China Contemporary Art”, Brasilia Art Museum, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  • “Golden Harvest – Chinese Contemporary Art Exhibition”, Croatia National Art Museum, Zagreb, Croatia
  • “Harvest – Contemporary Art Exhibition of China”, Agricultural Exhibition Center, Beijing, China
  • “Paris – Peking”, Pierre Cardin Center, Paris, France
  • “The First Guangzhou Triennial: Reinterpretation – A Decade of Experimental Chinese Art (1990 – 2000)”, Guangdong Art Museum, Guangzhou, China
  • “Overwhelming Fun”, HaKaren Art Gallery, Singapore
    2001

  • “Hot Pot: Chinese Contemporary Art”, Kunstnemes Hus, Oslo, Norway
  • “New Starting Point”, Art Gas Station, Beijing, China
  • “Cross Crossing”, Modern Art Gallery, Chengdu, China
  • “Dream: Contemporary Art of China”, Atlantic Fine Art, London, UK
  • “Art and Science”, National Art Museum of China, Beijing, China
  • “Making China”, Ethan Cohen Fine Arts, New York, USA
  • “Poster Exhibition of Chinese Avant-garde”, Red Gate Gallery, Beijing, China
  • “Knowledge is Power”, Beijing Book Building, Beijing, China
  • “Celebration of Life”, Oriental Plaza, Beijing, China
  • “Rocks and Art: Nature Found and Made”, Chambers Fine Art, New York, USA
    2000

  • “Invitational Exhibition of Contemporary Sculpture from China”, Qingdao Sculpture Museum, Qingdao, China
  • “Oriental Plaza Selected Contemporary Sculpture from China”, Oriental Plaza, Beijing, China
  • “Open 2000: International Exhibition of Sculpture and Installation”, Venice, Italy
  • “Sui Jianguo and Zhan Wang: Two Man Sculpture Exhibition”, Loft Gallery, Paris, France
  • “Humanist Landscape”, Guilin, Guangxi, China
  • “Documentation of Chinese Avant-garde Art in the 1990’s”, Fukuoka Asian Art Museum, Fukuoka, Japan
  • “2000 West Lake International Sculpture Invitational Exhibition”, Taiziwan Park, Hangzhou, China
  • “The World of Real and Illusory”, Yun Feng Gallery, Beijing, China
  • “Spirit of Shanghai: The 3rd Shanghai Biennale”, Shanghai Art Museum, Shanghai, China
  • “With Complements”, Cotthem Gallery, Brussel, Belgium
    1999

  • “Cities on the Move”, Louisiana Museum of Modern Art, Copenhagen, Denmark; Hayward Gallery, London, UK; Museum of Contemporary Art, Helsinki, Finland
  • “Transience – Chinese Experimental Art at the End of the Twentieth Century”, The Smart Museum of Art, Chicago, USA
  • “Contemporary Art from China”, LIMN Gallery, San Francisco, USA
  • “Volume and Form: Singapore International Sculpture Exhibition”, Singapore
  • “Changchun Invitational Sculpture Exhibition”, Changchun, China
  • “Second Annual Exhibition of Contemporary Sculpture”, He Xiangning Museum, Shenzhen, China
  • “At the New Century 1979 – 1999”, Chengdu Museum of Contemporary Art, Chengdu, China
    1998

  • “Signs of Life: Group Exhibition of Modern Chinese Art”, Modern Art Studio, Beijing, China
  • “Cities on the Move”, Museum of Contemporary Art, Bordeaux, France; P.S.1 Contemporary Art Center, New York, USA
  • “Autonomous Action – New Chinese Art on Video”, Art Space, Auckland, New Zealand
  • “Commemorating Life”, Jin Bao Shan, New Taipei City, Taiwan
  • “Half a Century of Footprints, Central Academy of Fine Arts, Sculpture Institute”, CAFA Museum, Beijing, China
  • “A Revelation of 20 Years of Contemporary Chinese Art”, Workers’ Cultural Palace, Beijing, China
  • “Building Blocks”, The Courtyard Gallery, Beijing, China
  • “Rethinking Tradition – An Exhibition of Contemporary Chinese Art”, German Embassy, Beijing, China
  • “First Annual Exhibition of Contemporary Sculpture”, He Xiangning Museum, Shenzhen, China
  • “Platform for the Two Sexes”, TEDA Contemporary Art Museum, Tianjin, China
    1997

  • “Chinese Contemporary Art Exhibition”, Watari-um Museum, Tokyo, Japan
  • “Eternal Memory – Nanshan Sculpture Exhibition”, Nanshan Sculpture Institute, Shenzhen, China
  • “Cities on the Move – Asian Contemporary Art (Touring Exhibition 1997 –1999)”, Vienna, Austria
  • “Chinese Dream – 97 Contemporary Chinese Art”, Yan Huang Art Museum, Beijing, China
  • “The First Sculpture Activities in Guilin Daguyang Art Palace”, Guilin, China
  • “Continuation”, Central Academy of Fine Art, Beijing, China
    1996

  • “TEDA International Sculpture Competition”, Tianjin, China
  • “The First Exhibition in Mountain-Forest Sculpture Park”, Huairou, Beijing, China
  • “International Outdoor Exhibition of Contemporary Sculpture”, Fukuoka, Japan
  • “The First Academic Exhibition of Chinese Contemporary Artists”, Hong Kong Art Center, Hong Kong, China
  • “Sculpture and Contemporary Culture – The Research Report on Chinese Contemporary Art”, Chongqing, China
  • “Invited Works of Chinese Contemporary Sculpture”, Nanshan Sculpture Institute, Shenzhen, China
  • “Reality: Present and Future ’96: Chinese Contemporary Art”, International Crowne Plaza, Beijing, China
    1995

  • “45 Degrees as a Reason”, Art Exchange, Hangzhou/Shanghai/Beijing, China
  • “Development Plan, Triplicate Studio 1st Exhibition”, remains of the original Central Academy of Fine Arts, Beijing, China
  • “Women·Site, Triplicate Studio 2nd Exhibition”, Contemporary Art Gallery, Beijing, China
  • “Open Your Mouth, Close Your Eyes: Beijing – Berlin Art Exchange”, Art Museum of the Capital Normal University, Beijing, China
  • “Exhibition of Works Nominated by Critics (1995 sculpture and installation)”, Jiangsu Art Monthly, Nanjing, China
    1994

  • “Cleaning Ruins Project”, Wang Fujing, Beijing, China
  • “Second National Urban Sculpture Exhibition”, National Art Museum of China, Beijing, China
  • “Agree to 11/26 as a Reason, Art Exchange”, Hangzhou/Shanghai/Beijing, China
    1993

  • “Taiwan – Beijing Two Sides of the Strait, Sculpture Exchange”, Kaohsiung Art Gallery, Taiwan; Yan Huang Art Museum, Beijing, China
    1992

  • “20th Century China”, National Art Museum of China, Beijing, China
  • “Contemporary Youth Sculptor Invitation Exhibition”, Gallery of Zhejiang Academy of Fine Arts, Zhejiang, China
    1991

  • “New Generation Art Exhibition”, Chinese History Museum, Beijing, China
    1990

  • “The First Studio Art Exhibition”, CAFA Gallery, Beijing, China
    1987

  • “Art Academy Student Work Exhibition”, Museum of the Central Academy of Fine Arts, Beijing, China
    1986

  • “Beijing Youth Art Exhibition”, National Art Museum of China, Beijing, China

Awards

    2011

  • AAC Art China.Annual Influence
  • Harper’s Bazaar Men’s Style
    2006

  • Martell Extraordinary Artist Award
    2000

  • 100 Global Most Discussed Artists, Art Handbook, Japan
Click on each year's works

如何翻製傳統? ──閱讀展望的創作

文/游崴

1994年,展望創作了「誘惑──中山裝系列」,標幟著他試圖用觀念來拆解雕塑傳統,並探討社會文化因子的企圖心。「中山裝」在服飾細節上具有不少政治理想的隱喻,常予人莊重威嚴的印象。但展望的「中山裝」所暗示的,卻是一個個激烈蜷曲的身體。

這組雕塑的材料是現成物,用真的中山裝固化製作而成,乍看如人著衣,裡頭暗示著身軀,但實際上,它們只是一層薄薄的軀殼,身體已經缺席了。在展望眼中,內裡空蕩蕩的中山裝,一如蟬蛻之後遺留下的殼:

蟬在最後離開這個舊的軀殼的時候,一定是很壯烈的,這從蛻變後留下的軀殼的動作上可以看出來。而當你把蟬蛻拿在手上的時候,卻又是一種舉重若輕的感覺。[1]

舉重若輕,曾經的壯烈被抽離掉只剩一副如蟬蛻後的殼,展望以「中山裝」為喻,指陳的其實是中國社會在1990年代後集體精神狀態的鉅變──即在政治威權之外,商品化與日常性在底層社會開始顯現,並衝擊了原先單一化的社會體制。

傳統雕塑以體感、量感來體現存有,展望的「中山裝」則是相反地表達虛空,展示著主體消散後,孤伶伶的一副皮相。這種關於表皮的美學,緊接著在他之後的「假山石」系列中繼續獲得發展。

展望自1994年起開始用不銹鋼創作「假山石」系列。假山石是一種在長年水波侵蝕下而外形奇兀聳峭的石灰岩,因石形特殊宛若山形,因此自古便是中國園林裡常見的裝飾物。展望將這些帶著文人傳統基因的石塊,翻製成熠熠發光的雕塑物件,它們是天然假山石的摹本,看來如同工業製品,實際上卻是耗時費力的手工藝。

不銹鋼現代雕塑常給人低限而幾何的印象,展望的假山石由於完全像是自然生成的有機形體而顯得不同。但有形的雕塑物件在展望的創作中,只像是個逗點,重要的是前後文──即從一開始的藝術生產,到之後作品在社會場域中收受的整個機制。展望常常在上述這種創作活動的「前場」與「後場」之間瞻前顧後進行思索,「正本」與「摹本」之間的辯證關係亦是展望常動用的語法。

文物、信物與神話

值得注意的是,從中山裝到假山石,展望所翻製的除了是現成物之外,也毫無疑問的全是傳統文化浸染甚深的「文物」。只是這些文物在經過展望的翻製後,特定的歷史文化脈絡不是被翻轉,不然就是變得可疑。展望的手法接近一種符號學式的操作,將文物的表義(denotation)與深義(connotation)彼此剝離開來創造歧義,對此,展望主要透過不銹鋼的特殊質感來創造剝離的效果。

對展望而言,用不銹鋼來詮釋傳統文物帶來「如釋重負的輕鬆感,這種感覺帶給我們的是解脫,是疏離,是一種距離感」[2]。在他的描述中,「傳統」像是一個隨身物品,或輕或重,你總是無時無刻在感受它(這無疑延續著「中山裝」系列裡有過的類似觀點──傳統如覆在每個人身上的表皮與介殼,在穿與脫之間意義因此改變)。事實上,展望的創作觀中常涉及某種身體化的描述策略,不管是傳統、文化、政治與國家,它們都不是抽象觀念,而是涉及身體感的經驗。

如果傳統上,文人眼中的奇石引領著人們凝視風化後的殘敗嶙嶇來遙想大地,展望的不銹鋼「假山石」則近乎讓時間凍結,充滿歷史消散後的冷酷味道,拋光的表面作為一種徹底的皮相,漫射四周光景卻不透露內裡奧祕。

被翻製後的假山石,漸漸與它原本指涉的自然、舊時代與文人傳統等等拉開了距離,成為一種意義飄忽不定的物體,而展望致力將它們置於各種不同的場所中,來創造新的意義,如2000年他從山東省最外海的靈山島駛出12海哩到達國際海域,將一顆不銹鋼浮石投入海中做為「在公海上展示的藝術品」;其他一些「假山石行動」則連結了著名地標,如2001年的《鑲長城計畫》用不銹鋼翻製磚頭修補長城,或是讓一組登山隊帶著他的「假山石」登上海拔8848公尺的珠穆朗馬峰,甚至,最瘋狂的想法是把假山石送入太空的《新補天計畫》。這些材質上近乎不朽的假山石反覆在不同畛域間往復,它們源自大地,卻又在人為鍛造後,被重新施放回大地之中暗示著什麼,在某種意義上變成了挾帶精神意義的信物。

有趣的是,藝術語言的象徵力量,在展望常被操作得像是神話或傳說,帶有莫名的傳奇色彩。事實上,若考慮展望的創作總是圍繞著那些意味深長的文物,我們便不訝異於他對於神話與傳說的興趣。他從不吝於以具體的藝術語言引用神話、典故、傳說與歷史故事,為其觀念行動注入敘事性。

神話的隱喻讓展望的觀念雕塑有著很貼近世俗的一面。確實,對大多數的觀者而言,用神話傳說來理解展望手中的奇山異石,似乎遠比透過「社會雕塑」這類美學觀念來得容易些。如《新補天計畫》展望直接以「女媧煉石補天」為喻,並在他之後的個展「園林烏托邦」中,將計畫中的這塊不銹鋼隕石,在玻璃櫃中施以電磁技術使其漂浮半空中,看來就像是真的具有異常能量,至於究竟它是否真的進行過一趟太空之旅?似乎已無關緊要。2007年,展望赴西藏參加一項邀請展,則將他製作的假山石讓西藏當地的依勒活佛進行開光,被開光後的山石,則曖昧地處在藝術學與神祕主義之間。終究,藝術的象徵性與神話的傳奇性,在展望的手中有時像是一體兩面。

都市地景與文人幻境

除了在自然大地中進行的各種觀念行動,展望的假山石更常回應的是城市空間,對此,北京一直是他的靈感來源。北京自從1990年代的改革開放以來,都市地景快速變化,從小生長於北京的展望對此感受很深。1994年,當時北京最繁華的王府井大街東面正在進行都更,展望以一天時間來清洗、裝修廢墟一角。這個名為《廢墟清洗計畫》的行動終究是徒勞的社會干預,但作為藝術行動,卻凸顯了北京在現代化背後,舊傳統傷逝的象徵意義。

展望早年清洗廢墟的行動,仍有很強的物傷其類式的人文喟嘆,但慢慢的,他對都市的回應變得越來越具有後現代口吻。不銹鋼材質的華麗皮相,山石已不是山石,而近乎一種物質禮讚。材質性使得展望的假山石,有時看來並不站在都市空間的對立面演繹著自然人文,而是相反地比都市文明更壯麗、更奇觀。

一座現代城市如何像是不銹鋼一樣閃亮而不朽?這個想法在展望於2003年開始的「都市山水」系列中被操作到極致,他直接用量產的不銹鋼餐具,像積木般組成觀者可以走進的城市場景。「都市山水」系列不只把物質文明推至壯觀的程度,現場煙霧繚繞亦宛若文人山水。展望確實有意把現代都市造就出的幻景主義,跟北宋山水畫「可觀、可居、可遊」的傳統結合在一起。觀者不只旁觀,還得以遊歷其間。

近幾年來,展望的不銹鋼物件,不管是假山石或是餐具建築,越來越展現出某種雙重意象,一方面將都市文明扭曲映射成壯麗奇觀,另一方面,它們自身滿盈的物質性早就自成一景觀。展望給我們的現代都市,不管多亮麗如新,全是某種形式下的文人山水:你彷彿可以身處其間,又同時抽離開來賞玩它,場景與人的關係總是雙重的。

大地之遼闊,可以萃取為一方假山石,這個想法本身就接近一種畸趣,而展望作品中,不銹鋼的材質性似乎把這種畸趣帶向更世俗社會的那一端。其耐用、穩定與量產的可能,使得做為正本的文物具備了某種進入商品經濟的潛力,傳統文化在此不只變得很輕,還可以被計算,並透過某種經濟法則來流通,一如《佛藥堂》(2006)與《萬神殿──ATM搜神機》(2007)這兩個創作計畫中,展望試圖將歷史傳統與精神世界用世俗邏輯進行重組的手法。

小結

展望早年以雕塑起家,但這20年來卻不斷擴張作品的形式與美學意義。從早期的「中山裝」系列,到之後體系龐雜的「假山石」系列(及其衍生出的觀念行動)、不銹鋼餐具城市,乃至於最近這幾年來以世俗手法重組精神世界的多媒體裝置,它們從一個藝術物件,一路向外擴張至環境、行動與媒體。

創作面貌多樣,但展望所關注的卻一直是當代中國社會過去20年來在各層面上的轉變。「中山裝」以痙攣的身體感來體現傳統政治社會的瓦解,之後的「假山石」則反映新興商品經濟與城市文化的崛起創造出的新的世俗生活情境,文人雅趣、常民信仰與歷史傳統在此之中成為新的文化符碼。展望透過他的創作,描繪著他曾經歷過、至今仍身處其間的時代轉折,並試著告訴我們,從前精神世界遺留下來的遺產,如今將透過新的世俗法則,一個個重組起來。

(本文節錄自〈鏡石/時境〉一文。原文收錄於《展望》,台北:誠品畫廊,2010)

[1] 史麗,〈展望,假山石新夢想〉,《北京青年週刊》,2006年7月6日。

[2] 引自展望對於《假山石85#》的自述。參考展望,《新素園石譜》,北京:三聯書店,2008,頁115-116

SOLO EXHIBITION

  • 2014 "Zhan Wang, SUYUAN STONE GENERATOR - 1 HOUR EQUALS 100 MILLION YEARS", PROJECT ONE, Hong Kong, China
  • 2010 “Reflection”, ESLITE GALLERY, Taipei, Taiwan

GROUP EXHIBITION

  • 2014 “Bloom: ESLITE GALLERY 25th Anniversary”, ESLITE GALLERY, Taipei, Taiwan

額外資訊

Color

Brown, Silver

Years

2011-2020

Size

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